Like everyone else (and especially like their authors), publishers want to be successful. Just how they get there is another matter, one that baffles some authors and leaves others enraged.
Perhaps the best way to approach this, then, is to understand where publishers are coming from and where they are going to.
- There has been a dramatic decline in library sales, the bread and butter of academic publishing, in part due to rising periodical subscription charges and IT costs swallowing bigger chunks of libraries’ budgets.
- Sales to individual scholars have also fallen, in part because too much is being published (thus hard for scholars to maintain comprehensive, personal libraries).
- No significant new source of income has yet been tapped.
- Falling sales have prompted publishers to raise prices causing further falls in sales.
- The recent global recession has seen universities cutting back on their funding for their presses (indeed, some university presses have been closed or sold off in recent years).
- New print-on-demand (POD) technology is allowing single-copy printing but, though this is excellent for reprints, it is not cost-effective for quantities over 300 copies (and for most books an initial printrun under this amount is not commercially viable).
- The POD revolution may lead to on-demand ordering/printing for consumers (e.g. using the Book Expresso machine described here), leading to the death of the traditional bookshop and end of the current global book supply chain.
- There is a proliferation of e-book readers, none of them particularly good yet in terms of reading for extended periods of time but the likelihood is high of an ‘iPod moment’ in e-publishing within the next five years.
- Hopes of new income from electronic sales are driving massive investment in e-publishing but economic returns to date have been negligible (and, worse, this development undercuts the status of the printed book, currently the prime revenue earner).
- Demands from funding agencies for Open Access is pushing publishers into offering free electronic content but a viable business model for this is not yet in place.
- Copyright, the bedrock of the publishing business model, is under attack from several quarters, not least because it is seen as incompatible with the internet and e-publishing revolutions.
Some of these developments will have a huge impact on the future shape of publishing and already today they shape publishers’ perceptions and expectations.
Another key point – but one that many people lose sight of – is that (unless you are dealing with a really small press) ‘the publisher’ is more than one person.* Each has their own personality, interests and agenda. Over and above that, an author will encounter at least three faces of a publishing house:
- editorial (focused more on scholarly content)
- production (focused on costs and deadlines), and
- marketing (focused on financial returns).
These divergent interests interact, not always coherently, nor to the benefit, comprehension or sanity of the author.
(*Note: Actually, in any publishing house, the publisher is often one person but here we are taking about ‘publisher’ in another sense.)
OK, so these are some of the places where academic publishers are coming from but what effect has this environment (and recent changes to it) had on publishers’ expectations and behaviour? The main effect is that today academic publishers are taking a more hard-nosed, commercial approach to the books they publish than was the case a decade ago. In concrete terms, the key changes are:
- Increased commercial behaviour.
- Cost cutting, outsourcing of especially production work to outsiders, and increased workloads and stress for remaining in-house staff.
- The rising power of marketing departments and corresponding decline in the power of editorial staff to decide what is published.
- Editors must take the bottom line into consideration when signing up a new title.
- Each new book project must stand or fall on its own merits (far less cross-subsidization).
- Demands for author subventions are more common.
- Greater aversion to financial risk, hence to taking on book projects that look commercially unpromising or expensive to produce.
- A far greater proportion of book proposals and manuscripts are rejected.
- A big increase in the number of ‘crossover’ titles (of interest beyond an academic readership) and interdisciplinary titles.
- Greater willingness to publish purely commercial titles (aimed at the general public) with little or no scholarly value.
- Reluctance to publish highly specialized studies.
- Reluctance to publish edited or multi-author volumes (more about this in a latter post).
- More ‘fad’ and ‘me-too’ publishing as publishers seek to emulate the successes of their competitors.
Although these developments have wrought great changes in publishers’ expectations and behaviour, what publishers want from their authors is not all that different than before (though there may be far less flexibility and room for compromise than there was in the past). Here are some of these wants and desires:
- Publishers want to publish only books that will succeed. This has important implications for what book projects are viable, and hence for how you formulate and develop your book project, find its ‘right’ publisher(s), and pitch it to them.
- Once a book proposal *is* accepted, the publisher wants the book to succeed. This requires full commitment from publisher and author, and no half measures from either side.
- Your publisher expects you to deliver the manuscript that was agreed upon (and contacted). If different, make sure that the manuscript is far better than promised (and accept that this is not something for you alone to judge).
- Your publisher requires you to be a team player working your butt off to achieve the book’s final publication; tasks assigned will be finalized swiftly and efficiently (and without any comment or criticism of the publisher’s own delays and failures!)
- At all time (not just after publication), the publisher wants you to tirelessly promote your book to its widest possible readership, especially by utilizing channels and contacts not available to the publisher.
All the rest is detail.
But coming later …
That said, a detailed ‘bitch list’ is something that I shall prepare one day soon, possibly together with my assistant, Samantha, who yesterday reeled off a screed of pet hates – top of the list: ‘Don’t inundate me with lots of tiny corrections. Why not instead just send me your manuscript when it’s finished.’