For the last two weeks, I have been blithely discussing what typesetting is and the issues relating to it but without actually describing what is produced. Time for a short overview before we move on a new thread of posts, on the proofing process.
Typesetting is not a single event in the production of the book pages; rather, it is a multi-phased process and one interwoven with that for the proofing of the book. In a sense, one could look at typesetting and proofing as a duet sung by a tenor and soprano.
Their ‘performance’ looks somewhat like this (but note that approaches do vary between presses):
- Initial typesetting
- Output of first proofs
- First proofing
- Completion of typesetting
- Output of second (often the ‘final’) proofs
- Second (or ‘final’) proofing and indexing
- Output of print-ready copy
- Final-copy check
- Delivery of print files to the printer
Let’s look at the initial typesetting, its completion and briefly at how the proofs are output. More detailed descriptions of each of the proofing phases shall follow in my next thread of posts on proofing.
In addition, also required (and not mentioned above) is typesetting of the cover/jacket (more about that in my next post).
Practices differ between typesetters and another major factor is which typesetting software is used. However, likely steps are as follows:
- Finalization of the page design (as discussed here).
- Creation of typesetting documents meeting the design specification.
- Conversion of those input files not conforming to the page design/software requirements (e.g. image files changed from colour to monochrome and from JPEG to TIFF format).
- Marking up of text files with consistent paragraph styles that match those defined in the destination typesetting documents.
- Import and placing of text files in the typesetting documents.
- Assignment of paragraph and character styles to the text and any tables (or, if already done at step #4, then fine-tuning of styles).
- Import and placing of any image files in the typesetting documents (often this step is left until completion of typesetting).
- Generation of first proofs.
Not too many years ago, when typesetting was done on specialist machines, the initial proofs were output in galley form, i.e. as continuous text without any page breaks marked and printed out on what looked like giant-sized toilet paper. As the layout was finalized, the book would be paginated, subsequent proofs clearly showing the page breaks. These proofs, too, could be printed on long galleys or guillotined into their individual pages.
The output of today’s PC-based desktop publishing systems is utterly different, being based on the industry-standard PDF format (though other output formats are possible). Galleys are gone; everything is either printed on ordinary (A4 or US Letter) paper or output as PDFs. Moreover, there is little difference in the appearance of (say) the initial set of proofs and the final print files sent to the printer (not least, all proofs are paginated).
The shift to PDFs has been a revolutionary development for authors. This, however, is something I shall take up next week in a new section of posts detailing the proofing and indexing process. Proofing outputs are discussed in greater detail here.
Completion of typesetting
Just what is needed to be done to complete the typesetting process depends of course on if step 7 above was done during the initial typesetting or has been left until now. If the latter is true, then likely steps are as follows:
- Keying of any text changes from the first proofing.
- Import and placing of any image files in the typesetting documents.
- Re-evaluation of the likely extent of the book including space for the index (not yet prepared, of course).
- Possible adjustment of the page design (especially of the font size and line spacing) to meet the final extent set by the production editor.
- Pagination of the book (including subtle adjustments to line spacing, to the placement and size of tables and illustrations, etc. to save on – or add – a few lines here and there so that the target page count is indeed reached); the ideal is that each double-page spread has even page bottoms, its composition is evenly balanced and the overall effect is aesthetically pleasing.
- Finalization of any page-specific cross-references.
- Generation of second (often ‘final’) proofs.
After the return of any changes resulting from the final proofing and delivery of the index, typesetting concludes as follows:
- Keying of any text changes from the final proofing.
- Typesetting of the index.
- Generation of print-ready copy for checking/approval by press staff.
- Delivery of print files to the printer.